In the current issue of Bulletin of the World Health Organization, authors Margaret Carrel and Stuart Rennie describe ethical challenges presented by demographic and health surveillance activities performed in low-income countries (“Demographic and Health Surveillance: Longitudinal Ethical Considerations”). What’s the link to translational research and gene transfer?
A number of issues identified in this article represent continuing challenges for fields like gene transfer, and this article offers analysis on these from an entirely different angle and context.
The most prominent example is the problem of distinguishing between research and care. Health surveillance activities inevitably identify health problems that demand intervention. But because surveillance sites are designed to provide information that will predict trends in similar, unmonitored sites, intervening risks diminishing the reliability of information about disease patterns. Some readers of this blog might be aware that I have argued that clear demarcations between research and care are impossible, and ethicists should abandon the project of trying to devise a dichotomous distinction (Hastings Center Report 2007). Health surveillance provides yet another example.
A second parallel is the issue of consent. The authors of this article ask whether new members of a household–children, for example–must provide consent for surveillance activities that their parents agreed to before they were born. This is analogous to issues encountered around germ cell interventions (intentional or otherwise) in gene transfer. Same is true for infertility treatment research.
Finally, a recent entry in this blog describes a paper Alex John London and I published on gene transfer trials in low and middle-income countries. The kinds of surveillance activities described in this article provide the types of information that research sponsors will need to make the case that an intervention they intend to test will be “responsive” to local health needs. Getting the ethics right for this “leg work” will be necessary for getting the ethics right for translational trials. (photo credit: Christian et Cie, 2008).